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Frogs have a bony endoskeleton, a distinct head (cephalic) region, four limbs (they are tetrapods), a closed_circulatory_system with a three-chambered heart (two atria (sing: atrium), one ventricle), separate sexes (they are dioecious), kidneys, and ten pairs of cranial_nerves.

If you open the frog's mouth you can see (and feel) the vomerine_teeth on the upper front surface of the mouth. You can also identify the tongue and its attachment point at the front of the lower portion of the mouth. Eustachian tubes are also visible, as is the glottis. Eustachian tubes connect the tympanic membranes to the throat and assist with regulation of air pressure within the auditory mechanism.

The glottis leads to the esophagus, which is turn connects to the stomach. The stomach in turn connects to the small and large intestines, which lead to the cloaca.

The pancreas is located in the mesentery behind the stomach. The liver has several lobes, and the gall_bladder is located behind the central section of the liver (straight down from the position of the heart above the diaphragm).

Paired lungs flank the heart in the thoracic cavity. The diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdomenal cavities and assists with the respiratory process.

A urinary_bladder connects to the kidneys and the cloaca via ureters (urinary_ducts) and provides for removal of excess water and various metabolic wastes.

The spleen can be located by reflecting the stomach. It lies in the mesentery near the pancreas. It provides for production (except in birds and mammals) and storage of blood cells.

Frogs and toads are cold-blooded (ectothermic), so they only feed and breed during the warmer seasons. They have fat_bodies that store extra food for winter hibernation or drought/hot weather estivation. When the female's eggs mature, she will enter the water and a male will clasp her body (amplexus). As the pressure upon her body increases, her eggs will be released, and the male will release sperm over them. Fertilization is external. Zygotes develop into free-swimming larvae, which are known as tadpoles. The tadpoles undergo a complete_metamorphosis to become mature frogs.

The testes of the male are located near the caudal (tail region) of the ventral side of each kidney. Vestigial_oviducts are present in males, but as the name implies they perform no reproductive function. Enlarged distal sections of the male's urinary_ducts form seminal_vesicles, which create seminal_fluid and and collect sperm. Sperm are them released via the urinary ducts into the cloaca.

The female's ovaries are located ventral to the kidneys, and become packed with so many eggs that at maturity the eggs become the only visible part of the ovarian structure! The ovaries are connected to the uteri by the oviducts. Each uterus is actually a pear-shaped extension of the base of an oviduct. The uteri open into the cloaca. When eggs are released from the female, the oviducts also release a gelatinous material to cover and protect the eggs.

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