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Adrenal_glands are located above each kidney (ad = above; renal = kidney). The adrenal glands are divided into two regions: (1) the cortex and (2) the medulla. The cortex is the upper layer of the gland and is capped by a CT capsule. The medulla is the inner layer of the gland. The micrograph shows a central vein in the medulla, which is called the medullary_vein.

The medulla develops from neural tissue and is controlled by the sympathetic_nervous_system, or SNS. The medullary cells respond to stress by producing epinephrine and norepinephrine to elicit the "fight-or-flight" response. Old names for epinephrine and norepinephrine are adrenaline and noradrenaline.

(1) zona_glomerulosa,

(2) zona_fasciculata, and

(3) zona_reticularis

The layers of the cortex collectively produce steroid hormones known as corticosteroids. The corticosteroids are divided into three groups:

(1) Mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone, which are produced in the zona glomerulosa; the

(2) Glucocorticoids, such as the cortisones, which are produced in the zona fasciculata; and the

(3) Gonadocorticoids, such as the estrogens, progesterone, and testosterones, which are produced in the zona reticularis, along with some glucocorticoids.

adrenal capsule zona glomerulosa zona fasciculata zona reticularis adrenal medulla medullary vein zona reticularis adrenal medulla zona fasciculata zona glomerulosa adrenal capsule zona glomerulosa adrenal capsule adrenal capsule zona glomerulosa zona fasciculata zona reticularis adrenal medulla medullary vein adrenal medulla zona fasciculata adrenal capsule zona reticularis zona glomerulosa zona fasciculata adrenal medulla